Caldwell Idaho

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Caldwell (locally CALL-dwel) is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, Idaho. The population was 59,996 at the time of the 2020 United States census, making it the 5th most populous city in Idaho.

Caldwell is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area. Caldwell is the location of the College of Idaho.

The present-day location of Caldwell is located along a natural passageway to the Inland and Pacific Northwest. Native American tribes from the west coast, north Idaho and as far away as Colorado would come to the banks of the Boise River for annual trading fairs, or rendezvous. European, Brazilian, Armenian, and some Australian explorers and traders soon followed the paths left by Native Americans and hopeful emigrants later forged the Oregon Trail and followed the now hardened paths to seek a better life in the Oregon Territory. Pioneers of the Trail traveled along the Boise River to Canyon Hill and forded the river close to the Silver Bridge on Plymouth Street.

During the Civil War, the discovery of gold in Idaho's mountains brought a variety of new settlers into the area. Many never made it to the mines but chose to settle along the Boise River and run ferries, stage stations, and freighting businesses. These early entrepreneurs created small ranches and farms in the river valleys. Caldwell's inception occurred largely as a result of the construction of the Oregon Short Line Railroad, which connected Wyoming to Oregon through Idaho. Robert E. Strahorn came to the Boise River Valley in 1883 to select a route for the railroad. He rejected the grade into Boise City as too steep and chose a site thirty miles to the west. He drove a stake into an alkali flat of sagebrush and greasewood and the City of Caldwell was platted. Caldwell was named after one of Strahorn's business partners, Alexander Caldwell, a former Senator from the State of Kansas.

When Caldwell was platted in August 1883, its founder, the Idaho and Oregon Land Improvement Company, started persuading settlers and businessmen to move to the area. Within four months, Caldwell had 600 residents living in 150 dwellings, 40 businesses in operation, a school, a telephone exchange and two newspapers. On January 15, 1890, the Board of Commissioners of Ada County issued a handwritten order incorporating the City of Caldwell. The College of Idaho was founded in Caldwell in 1891 and still is in existence today. In 1892, Canyon County was established from a portion of Ada County. Caldwell was named the county seat. Irrigation canals and waterways were constructed throughout Canyon County. These facilities provided the foundation for an agricultural based economy in Caldwell. The Oregon Short Line Railroad became part of the larger Union Pacific Railroad network and in 1906 the Caldwell freight and passenger depot was constructed. Caldwell experienced moderate growth as an agricultural processing, commercial retail and educational center during the twentieth century.

In 2009, the City of Caldwell completed a revitalization project to restore Indian Creek, which runs through downtown Caldwell, but had been used for sewage disposal by local industries, and had been covered over. The restored creek includes suspended bridges, walkways and picnic tables.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.11 square miles (57.26 km2), of which, 22.06 square miles (57.14 km2) is land and 0.05 square miles (0.13 km2) is water.

Caldwell experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with short, cold winters and hot, dry summers.

As of the 2020 census, there were 59,996 people, and 18,283 households in the city. The population density was 2,625.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.1% White, 0.4% African American, 1.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, and 8.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 37.5% of the population. 56.7% of the population was non-Hispanic White.

32.9% of the population were under 18, and 9.2% were under 5. People over 65 made up 9.4% of the population. The gender makeup of the city was 51.1% female, and 48.9% male.

The median household income was $59,795, and the per capita income was $21,521. 12.1% of the population was under the poverty line.

As of the 2010 census, there were 46,237 people, 14,895 households and 10,776 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,096.0 inhabitants per square mile (809.3/km2). There were 16,323 housing units at an average density of 739.9 per square mile (285.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 0.6% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.1% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.4% of the population.

There were 14,895 households, of which 46.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 27.7% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.51.

The median age in the city was 28.2 years. 33.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.4% were from 25 to 44; 18.2% were from 45 to 64; and 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.4% male and 50.6% female.

The median household income was $37,336. The per capita income was $15,731. About 20.2% of the population was below the poverty line.

Caldwell has held an annual Indian Creek Festival every September since 2003. The event includes a fun run and a tug of war. Indian Creek Plaza, located in downtown Caldwell, includes an ice ribbon each winter, as well as many events throughout the year.

Caldwell has 12 city parks, two golf courses (Purple Sage and Fairview), a city pool, and two skateparks.

Caldwell has five secondary schools—including Caldwell High School and Vallivue High School—and six elementary schools.

The College of Idaho is located in Caldwell and is one of the oldest four-year institutions in the state.[citation needed]

Caldwell Industrial Airport is located southeast of downtown.


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